Mensing.AI

My journey into AI/ML/DL and other areas of interest.

A Brief History of AI: A Timeline πŸ—“

1943: groundwork for artificial neural networks laid in a paper by Warren Sturgis McCulloch and Walter Pitts, “A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity“. πŸ“ƒ [1]

1950: Alan Turing publishes the Computing Machinery and Intelligent paper which, amongst other things, establishes the Turing Test πŸ“ [6]

1951: Marvin Minsky and Dean Edmonds design the first neural net machine (machine, not computer) that navigated a maze like a rat. It was called SNARC. πŸ€[1]

1952: Arthur Samuel implements a computer program that can play checkers against a human, it’s the first AI program to run in the US. πŸ’Ύ [2]

1956: the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence conference is held, hosted by Minsky and John McCarthy. This also marks the coining of the term “artificial intelligence”. πŸ€– [6][7]

1956: Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, and Herbert Simon present the Logic Theorist at the above mentioned conference. This program attempted to recreate human decision making.Β πŸ€” [6]

1957: Perceptron, the first recreation of neurological principles in hardware, invented by Frank Rosenblatt. 🧠 [1]

1959: Samuel uses the phrase “machine learning” for the first time, in the title of his paper “Some Studies in Machine Learning Using the Game of Checkers“. πŸ“ƒ [2]

1960: Donald Michie builds a tic-tac-toe playing “computer” out of matchbooks. It utilized reinforcement learning and was called MENACE: Matchbox Educable Noughts And Crosses Engine. βŒβ­•οΈ [2]

1961: Samuel’s program beats a human checkers champion. πŸ† [2]

1965: Joseph Weizenbaum builds ELIZA, one of the first chatbots πŸ’¬ [7]

1969: Minsky writes a book called Perceptron that touched on the benefits of creating networks of perceptrons. πŸ“š [1]

1969: first AI conference held, the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelliengence. πŸ‘₯ [3]

1970: Seppo Linnainmaa creates first backpropagation equation (but it’s not known as such?). πŸ“ [3]

1986: Geoffrey Hinton and Ronald J. Williams publish paper creating/unveiling modern backprop. πŸ“ƒ [3]

1997: IBM’s Deep Blue beats chess world champion Garry Kasparov. πŸ† [5]

1999: the MNIST data set is published, a collection of handwritten digits from 0 to 9. ✏️ [5]

2012: GPUs used to win an ImageNet contest, becoming the gold standard for AI hardware. πŸ… [4] (more)

Updated on 10.01.18

[1] Src: Open Data Science

[2] Src: Rodney Brooks

[3] Src: Open Data Science

[4] Src: Azeem on Medium

[5] Src: Open Data Science

[6] Src: Harvard’s Science in the News

[7] Src: AITopics

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